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ISSN 2709-6114 - An International Biannual Journal
MANAGEMENT LETTERS
Author Guidelines
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Thank you for choosing to submit your manuscript to the Management letters. These instructions will ensure your article moves through peer review, production, and publication smoothly.

Editorial policy
The submitted articles/materials must not be under consideration for publication anywhere else and abide by the publication and experimentation ethics described below. All received articles are subjected to a double-blind peer-review process. Peer-review is defined as obtaining advice on individual manuscripts from reviewer's expert in the field. The editorial board will send articles to two potential referees, and the Editor-in-Chief will approve articles on the advice of those referees. The article will be published right after its acceptance with open access. Editorial board will take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like) will be presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published article.

Ethics of Survey
It is assumed that the submitted work has been conducted in accordance with the Social Science laws acceptable worldwide and/or regulations of the country where the work was undertaken; however, the journal management has the right to reject any manuscript where there is enough reason to believe that necessary laws and procedures have not been followed. All manuscripts which report in a field study on human behavior must include a written statement in the Materials and Methods section, that such work was conducted with the formal approval of the company/Individual or with the official permission of committees.

Plagiarism Detection
The Management Letters take publication ethics very seriously and abides by the best practice guidance of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Management Letters verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. Turnitin checks submitted articles against millions of published articles, and billions of web content. Every article is screened on submission and any that is deemed to overlap more than trivially with other publications will be rejected automatically with no right of appeal.

Statement for Competing Interest / Conflict of Interest
To ensure the objectivity and transparency in research and principles of ethical and professional conduct, authors must certify that they have or have no affiliation with or involvement in any organization or entity with any non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, knowledge) and financial interest (such as educational grants; honoraria; employment, consultancies, or other equity interest) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The source of funding and conflict of interest statement must be included in the manuscript at the end of the manuscript before the references section. The names of funding organizations should be written in full, and abbreviations should be avoided. See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state that the authors have no conflict of interest.

Relevant Permissions, and Copyright and Access Policy
The author(s) must obtain permissions for and acknowledged the source of excerpts from other copyright works. All necessary approvals/consents from all authors, institutional ethical and regulatory bodies should be obtained.
Management Letters provides online access to published articles free of charge and these articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Internationals (CC BY-NC-4.0), which means that the authors have open access as including not only basic elements such as the right to read, download and print (non-commercial), but also the right to copy, redistribute (non-commercial), transform, search, link, crawl, and mine.

Covering Letter
The corresponding author should also submit a cover letter with the subject of submission of an article entitled "give the title of the article" and statement of novelty in the present study.

Manuscript Types
Research Article
The submitted articles should be divided into the following sections;
(a) Abstract of approximately 100-300 words describing in the clear but briefly about background, methodology, results and statistical analysis use, recent findings, and conclusion. The keywords (3-6) should also be indicated at the end of the abstract. (1) An Introduction stating clearly the purpose of work done (2) Materials and Methods (3) Statistical Analysis (4) Results (5) Discussion (6) Acknowledgment (7) References (8) Tables and Figures must be arranged/uploaded at the end of the manuscript.

Short Communications
Short communications/case studies should be concise containing about 1500-2500 words or about 3 pages of the Journal, including illustrations, tables, and references. An abstract of 150-200 words should be included. The short communication should not include any heading or sub-heading. Only the abstract should be separated from the rest of the write-up. The total number of references should not exceed more than fifteen.

Reviews
Review articles are also welcomed. The authors should have a background of the work and are encouraged to consult the editor in advance before submission. References of the books should be avoided in writing the review articles. The article must include an introduction, appropriate headings in the text, and a conclusion. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that about 40-60% of the references should be within five years of relevant work for each form of publication and the submitted manuscripts comply with journal format.

Copyright Transfer
A copyright transfer form should be signed from all authors as requested concerning the author's contributions. To give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, please specify the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript. Please upload the signed form to the system as a separate file. The journal will not accept authors unable to provide fully signed copyright transfer forms upon acceptance.

Manuscript submission
Authors should submit their manuscript on the following Email address:
Title Page
The title page should include:
1.    Type of article, e.g., research article/review
2.    A concise and informative title in capital letters
3.    The FULL name(s) of the author(s) in the order of appearance in the manuscript
4.    Number of the table(s) and figure(s) in the manuscript
5.    The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
6.    The e-mail address, telephone, and fax numbers of the corresponding author
Text Formatting
1.    The only manuscript was written and submitted in Word (2007 or later) is acceptable
2.    Should have a one-inch margin on each side of the page
3.    Lines should be numbered as continuous line numbers
4.    Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 12-point Times New Roman) for text
5.    Italics may be used to emphasize certain points
6.    Automatic page numbering (bottom center) should be used to number the pages in manuscript in Times New Roman font
7.    Avoid using field functions
8.    The line spacing should be 1.5
9.    For indent, use tab stops or other commands, not the space bar.
10.  To make tables, use the table function, not spreadsheets
11.  Use the equation editor or Math Type for equations.

Headings
Please avoid using more than three levels of displayed headings.

Acknowledgments
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to the conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who do not meet the criteria for authorship.
1.    Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgments section. 
2.    Authors must describe the role of the funding body, if any, in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Symbols and Abbreviations
Concerning symbols in the manuscript, System International (SI) should be used. Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data).

References
The typescript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of the author's names and dates are the same as mentioned in the reference list. In the text, the references should be cited at the start as author name et al. (year) or at the end of the sentence as (author name et al. year). For example, similar results were reported earlier (Iqbal et al., 2019) or Raza et al. (2020) indicated that ...... All the references cited in the text should be written at the end of the manuscript alphabetically. In the end, references should be written as follow:
Reference to a journal publication:
Iqbal, H., Akhtar, S., & Kankam, W. A. (2019). Organizational Culture and Employee Retention at SMEs in Pakistan; an investigation of mediating role of Quality of Work Life. International Journal of Research, 6 (10), 647-657.
Isik, A., & Yasar, M. F. (2015). Effects of brand on consumer preferences: A study in Turkmenistan. Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 8 (16), 139-150.
Reference to a book:
Strunk, Jr W., White, E. B. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam, G. R., Adams, L. B. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304.
Reference for proceedings:
Lowe, K. F., Hamilton, B. A. Dairy pastures in the Australian tropics and subtropics. In: Murtagh GT, Jones RM, editors. Proceedings of the 3rd Australian conference on tropical pastures, Rockhampton, 1986, p. 68-79.
Note: If there are more than 6 authors than the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.'
Note: The authors can also use the format of the "HARVARD" journal when using the Endnote software to set the references.

Tables
Arabic numerals should be used to number the tables. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Begin each table caption with a label "Table 1:" Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters and included beneath the table body. The vertical lines should not be used.

Figures
The figure caption should begin with a label "Figure 1:" and an overall descriptive statement of the figure followed by additional text. o The figure caption should be written immediately after each figure. Figure parts should be indicated with capital letters (A). Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Borders around figures should not be used.

Supplementary Materials
This section includes the text of the Supplementary Materials, which can include figures, tables, material, and methods part.  Supplementary material can be provided in the same manuscript file at the end of the manuscript after tables and figures.

Artwork and Illustrations
The artwork and relevant illustrations are encouraged to submit in an electronic format. A soft copy of all illustrations/graphs prepared should be provided in Excel to adjust quality and size. JPEG or TIFF format should be used for figures along with appropriate size letters and numerals. The size of the letter and numerals should be of consistent size in all the illustrations or figures along with a caption. MS Office files are also acceptable. Captions should be numbered in Arabic and typed separately from the illustrations. Each provided figures/illustrations should not be embedded in the text. The illustration/photographs will be published in black and white; however, if required, a color printing facility is provided to authors on a payment basis. For details, contact the editorial office; the detail is available on the website.

Potential reviewers
While online submission, the authors are requested to provide 2 - 4 potential relevant reviewers with their complete details (designation, institute, postal address, telephone, fax, and official e-mail address). After an initial review by the journal management, the manuscript may be sent to a few of the given reviewers; however, the publication largely depends upon the response of reviewers and time taken by them in reviewing the manuscript.

Reprints
As the journal is available online, no hard copy will be provided to the corresponding author on the publication of his/her manuscript. The manuscript will be available free from the net, where it can be downloaded from anywhere. However, if required, the colored prints will be available upon payment.

Paper Selection and Publication Process
1.    There are no submission charges.
2.    After receipt of paper submission, the Editorial Assistant sends an E-mail of confirmation to the corresponding author within 1-2 working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, your submission/e-mail may be missed. Please contact the Editorial Assistant in time.
3.    Peer review. We use a double-blind system for peer-review; both reviewers and authors' identities remain anonymous. The paper will be peer-reviewed by three experts; two external reviewers and one editor from the journal typically involve in reviewing a manuscript. The review process may take 2-3 weeks.
4.    The authors revise the paper and pay the publication fee (100USD).
5.    Notification of the result of the paper review will be by E-mail.
6.    E-journal in PDF is available on the journal's webpage for download, free of charge.

Ethical guidelines for journal publication
The Management Letters is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the research. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior are unacceptable. Review articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of state of the art. The authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. Authors are obliged to participate in the peer-review process and provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. The corresponding author should ensure that all authors significantly contributed to the research, and there is a full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication. The authors must provide funding information and conflict of interest statements.
Editors: Editors should take responsibility for the smooth peer review, production, and publication process of submitted manuscripts under the journal legal requirements and policies. Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively based on their academic merit. An editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's research without the express written consent of the author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like) have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper. Editors should always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. The revisers should point out relevant published work that is not yet cited.

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