Human Atypical Trypanosomosis in Indian Subcontinent
L. D. Singla*, Deepak Sumbria
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004 (Punjab), India
Human trypanosoma infections as those seen in Africa and South America were unfamiliar in India till 1974. In Africa, the disease, known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness, is basically caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (chronic form) or T. b. rhodesiense (acute form), whereas the American trypanosomosis (Chagas’ disease), is caused by T. cruzi. Along with these parasites a number of atypical human infections caused by other Trypanosoma species (or sub-species) have been reported, namely T. brucei brucei, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. vivax, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. Across the world 20 patients with atypical human trypanosomiasis were documented, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2014 due to improved molecular diagnostic assays. However, the numbers of cases are atypical human trypanosomosis might be underestimated. Thus there is a need for the improvement and evaluation of new diagnostic tests. A further field investigation is most important for detection and confirmation of atypical cases. Here we have reviewed in brief the human atypical trypanosomosis in Indian Subcontinent.
Keywords: Human trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma evansi, Indian Subcontinent.
Received: December 13, 2015 Revised: January 28, 2016 Accepted: Febuary 09, 2016