Veterinaria ISSN 2409-4676
2016 | Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages 20-24
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Review article   
Swayback Disease in Ruminants
Muhammad Rizwan a*, Muhammad Ali a, Osman Ahmad Khan b,Tanveer Ahmed c, Aneela Zameer Durrani d

a B.Z.University, Bahadur Campus, Layyah
Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab. Pakistan
c Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, B.Z. University Multan.
d Department of Clinical Medicine & Surgery, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore

Swayback (enzootic ataxia), a disease caused by primary and secondary deficiency copper. This disease causes major economic losses; one hundred lambs are affected in single flock and up to 90 percent population of cattle can be affected in copper deficient areas. Congenital away back, progressive spinal swayback and acute fatal swayback are three forms of disease. The diagnosis was based on sign and symptoms and presence gross cavitations and gelatinous lesions of the cerebral white matter. Myelin deficiency due to methylation cycle hindrance in spinal cord cells has been also seen. Most of histo-pathological lesions are due to improper functioning of copper dependent enzymes. Laboratory diagnosis can be done by determination of serum and lever copper levels. Disease can be minimized by manage copper in animal diets.
Keywords: Swayback, enzootic ataxia, copper, lamb, Copper.

  Received: September 02, 2016                            Revised: October 29, 2016                                     Accepted: November 11, 2016                                                                                 
*Corresponding author: Muhammad Rizwan                                E-mail: