Dynamics of livestock population diversity in Punjab Province of Pakistan
Arshad Mahmood Malik a, Sameera Arshad b, Muhammad Ali Shah c*, Muzammal Tariq c, M. Aamir Khan d
aDepartment of Economics and Agri. Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, PMAS-AAUR
bDepartment of Biological Sciences, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad
cDepartment of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, PMAS-AAUR
dDepartment of Management Sciences, COMSATS, Islamabad.
Livestock is an integral part of rural household economy in Pakistan providing 35% of income to eight million rural households. The contribution of livestock sector in agricultural GDP of Pakistan is 56%. The Pakistan stands 4th in global milk producing market. Therefore, it is important to identify the livestock population density and diversity index at regional and sub regional setting and changes thereby occurring in last forty years. Data of all the districts of Punjab in last four livestock census for the year 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 were used for calculating variation in density and changes in diversity in different time periods. Simpson biodiversity Index was used for calculating livestock population diversity index on the basis of time and space. Livestock density is less than 1 animal per ha in Punjab. However, in 10 irrigated districts buffalo and goat density is greater than 1.5 heads per hectare. On the basis of K dominance analysis, goats were dominant in 17 where as Buffalo dominated in 18 districts of Punjab. The similarity index of livestock is high in Punjab (80%). Simpson reciprocal diversity index ranges in between three to five in various districts representing medium diversity. Its value showed decreasing trend in livestock diversity in Punjab over the last forty years. Livestock population in Punjab and its districts was significantly aggregated (Chi sq. p< 0.00). Government, policy makers and planners may focus on conservation of livestock diversity in Punjab.