A Global overview on Bovine Paratuberculosis: A Review
Amjad Khan a, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq b, Mansur Uddin Ahmad b, Asghar Khan c , Muhammad Shakeel c, Muhammad Ali Shah d and Shahid Hussain Farooqi e
a Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
b Department of Epidemiology and public health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
c Department of clinical studies4, Mehr Ali shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
d Department of clinical medicine and surgery, University of Veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore.
e Department of Patho-Biology, Pir Mehr Ali shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan
Johne's disease [Paratuberculosis] is an infectious disease of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis [MAP]. Paratuberculosis is considered to be the most important disease of ruminants. This disease is considerably important because of long incubation period [IP], high economic losses, together with difficulty in diagnosis due to the resemblance with human zoonotic disease, Morbus Crohn’s. Animals having latent infection do not show any clinical signs and symptoms but shed high numbers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in excretions and secretions. Economic losses occur as a result low production, infertility, increased susceptibility to other infections, death and culling of diseased animals, respectively. Many studies on the prevalence of MAP have been accomplished throughout the world, but still data of global scenario is missing. Keeping in view the increasing prevalence of MAP, more efforts have to be taken on a supra-regional level to improve the early detection, reduction of Johne’s disease and to prevent further spread of this disease in animal species.