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ISSN 2410-955X - An International Biannual Journal
Author Guidelines
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Thank you for choosing to submit your manuscript to Biomedical Letters. These instructions will ensure your article to move through peer review, production and publication smoothly.

Editorial policy
The submitted articles/materials must not be under consideration for publication anywhere else and abide by the publication and experimentation ethics described below. All received articles are subjected to double blind peer-review process. Peer-review is defined as obtaining advice on individual manuscripts from reviewers expert in the field. The editorial board will send articles to two potential referees and the Editor-in-Chief will approve articles on the advice of those referees. The article will be published right after its acceptance with open access. Editorial board takes reasonable responsive measures (Article Withdrawal Policy) when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like) are presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published article.

Ethics of experimentation
It is assumed that the submitted work has been conducted in accordance with the biological welfare laws acceptable worldwide and/or laws of the country where the work was undertaken; however, the journal management has the right to reject any manuscript where there is enough reason to believe that necessary laws and procedures have not been followed. All manuscripts which report in vivo experiments or clinical trials on humans or animals must include a written statement in the Materials and Methods section, that such work was conducted with the formal approval of the local human subject (patient or relatives/guardians if the patient is dead) or with the formal permission of animal care committees, and that clinical trials have been registered as the legislation requires.
If required, Authors must confirm that all mandatory laboratory health and safety procedures have been complied within the course of conducting any experimental work reported in the manuscript; and that the manuscript contains all appropriate warnings and safety precautions concerning any specific and particular hazards that may be involved in carrying out experiments or procedures described in the manuscript or involved in instructions, materials, or formulae in the manuscript.
The gene sequences should be submitted in a public database (GenBank, EMBL, or DDBJ) and their accession number must be mentioned in the text.

Plagiarism Detection
Biomedical Letters takes publication ethics very seriously and abides by the best practice guidance of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Biomedical Letters verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. Turnitin checks submitted articles against millions of published articles, and billions of web content. Every article is screened on submission and any that is deemed to overlap more than trivially with other publications will be rejected automatically with no right of appeal.

Compulsory Statement for Competing Interest / Conflict of Interest
To ensure the objectivity and transparency in research and principles of ethical and professional conduct, authors must certify that they have or have no affiliation with or involvement in any organization or entity with any non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, knowledge) and financial interest (such as educational grants; honoraria; employment, consultancies, or other equity interest; and patent-licensing) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The source of funding and conflict of interest statement must be included in the manuscript at the end of the manuscript before references section. The names of funding organizations should be written in full, abbreviations should be avoided. See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state that the authors have no conflict of interest.

Relevant Permissions, and Copyright and Access Policy
The author(s) must obtain permissions for and acknowledged the source of excerpts from other copyright works. All necessary approvals/consents from all authors, institutional ethical and regulatory bodies should be obtained.
Biomedical Letters provides online access to published articles free of charge and these articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Internationals (CC BY-NC-4.0), which means that the authors have open access as including not only basic elements such as the right to read, download and print (non-commercial), but also the right to copy, redistribute (non-commercial), transform, search, link, crawl, and mine.

Article Processing Charges
All articles in Biomedical Letters are published in full Open Access. An article processing charge (APC) is applied to all regular articles; all foreign authors are asked to pay $150 US dollars and the local authors $90 US dollars per processed paper for production cost and Open Access fees. Rejected articles are free of charge. There are no surcharges based on the length of an article, figures or supplementary data.

Cover Letter
The corresponding author should also submit a cover latter with the subject of submission of article entitled "give the title of article" and statement of novelty in present study.

Manuscript Types
Research Article
The submitted articles should be divided into the following sections;
(a) Abstract of approximately 100-300 words describing in clear but briefly about background, methodology, results and statistical analysis use, recent findings and conclusion. The key words (3-6) should also be indicated at the end of abstract. (1) Introduction stating clearly the purpose of work done. (2) Materials and Methods (3) Statistical analysis (4) Results (5) Discussion (6) Acknowledgements (7) References (8) Tables and figures must be arranged/uploaded at the end of the manuscript.

Short Communications
Short communications/case studies should be concise containing about 1500-2500 words or about 3 pages of the Journal, including illustrations, tables and references. An abstract of 100-200 words should be included. The short communication should not include any heading or sub-heading. Only abstract should be separated from the rest of write up. The total number of references should not exceed more than fifteen.

Review articles are also welcomed. Authors should have background of the work and are encouraged to consult the editor in advance before submission. References of the books should be avoided in writing the review articles. The article must include introduction, appropriate headings in the text and conclusion. It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that about 40-60% of the references should be within five years of relevant work for each form of publication and the submitted manuscripts comply with journal format.

Copyright Transfer
A copyright transfer form should be signed from all authors as requested with respect to the author's contributions. And in order to give appropriate credit to each author of a paper, please specify the individual contributions of authors to the manuscript. Please upload the signed form to the system as separate file. Authors unable to provide fully signed copyright transfer forms upon acceptance will not be accepted by the journal.

Manuscript submission
Authors should submit their manuscript on the following Email address: biomedical.letters@thesciencepublishers.com

Title Page
The title page should include:
1.    Type of article e.g., research article/review
2.    A concise and informative title in capital letters
3.    The FULL name(s) of the author(s) in the order of appearance in the manuscript
4.    Number of table(s) and figure(s) in the manuscript
5.    The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
6.    The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author

Text Formatting
1.    Only manuscript written and submitted in Word (2007 or later) is acceptable
2.    Should have one inch margin on each side of the page
3.    Lines should be numbered as continuous line numbers
4.    Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 12-point Times New Roman) for text
5.    Italics may be used to emphasize on certain points
6.    Automatic page numbering (bottom center) should be used to number the pages in manuscript in Times New Roman font
7.    Avoid using field functions
8.    The line spacing should be 1.5
9.    For indent, use tab stops or other commands, not the space bar.
10.  To make tables, use the table function, not spreadsheets
11.  Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.

Please avoid using more than three levels of displayed headings.

Statistical Analysis
Appropriate statistical treatment of the data is essential. When statistical analysis is performed, the name of the statistical test used, the number for each analysis, the comparisons of interest, the alpha level and the actual p-value for each test should be provided.

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the study by making substantial contributions to the conception, design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, or who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content, but who does not meet the criteria for authorship.
1.    Please list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the manuscript preparation in the acknowledgments section.  
2.   Authors must describe the role of the funding body, if any, in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Symbols and Abbreviations
With respect to symbols in the manuscript, System International (SI) should be used. Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data).

The typescript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of the author's names and dates are exactly the same as mentioned in the reference list. In the text, the references should be cited as number with brackets at the end of sentence or after the author name before full stop. For example; similar results were reported earlier [1]. or [1, 2]. The results indicated by Raza et al. [12] support...... All the references cited in the text should be written at the end of manuscript as cited in the text not alphabetically. At the end, references should be written as follow:
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Science Communications 2010;163:51-9.
[2] Younis M, Abbas R, Hussain A, Mehmood SS, Hassan IU, Iqbal M, Shoukat N, Nizamani A, Rehman FU, Shahzad KA. Anti-Breast Cancer Therapy May Affects Blood and Liver Cells. Biomedical Letters 2015;1(1):1-4.
[3] Labh K, Sun X. Various Manifestation of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: A Review. Biomedical Letters 2016;2(1):1-7.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304.
Reference for proceedings
[4] Lowe KF, Hamilton BA. Dairy pastures in the Australian tropics and subtropics. In: Murtagh GT, Jones RM, editors. Proceedings of the 3rd Australian conference on tropical pastures, Rockhampton, 1986, p. 68-79.
Note: If there are more than 6 authors than the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.'
Note: The authors can also use the format of "VACCINE" journal when using the Endnote software to set the references.

Arabic numerals should be used to number the tables. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Begin each table caption with a label "Table 1:" Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters and included beneath the table body. The vertical lines should not be used.

The figure caption should begin with a label "Fig. 1:" and an overall descriptive statement of the figure followed by additional text. The figure caption should be written immediately after each figure. Figure parts should be indicated with capital letters (A). Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Borders around figures should not be used. The figure file should be at least of 300 DPI and JPEG or TIFF format should be used along with appropriate size letter and numerals.

Supplementary Materials
This section includes the text of the Supplementary Materials, which can include figures, tables, material and methods part.  Supplementary material can be provided in the same manuscript file at the end of manuscript after tables and figures.

Potential Reviewers
While online submission, the authors are requested to provide 3 potential relevant reviewers with their complete details (designation, institute, postal address, telephone, fax and official e-mail address). After initial review by the journal management, the manuscript may be sent to few of the given reviewers; however, the publication largely depends upon the response of reviewers and time taken by them in reviewing the manuscript.

English Editing Service
Clear and concise language enables both the journal editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of the manuscript. In order to facilitate a proper peer review process and ensure that submissions are judged exclusively on academic merit, Biomedical Letters strongly encourages authors to prepare the language of their manuscripts with the utmost care.
If you are an author whose native language is not English or you have any concerns regarding the language quality of your manuscript, we recommend having your manuscript professionally edited by a qualified English-speaking researcher in your field prior to submission. THE SCIENCE PUBLISHERS has partnered with qualified English-speaking researchers as an option to provide this service at a 5% discount to all our authors.

Biomedical Letters aims to publish every article online in its final form. When authors receive the proofs of their articles, they have the opportunity to check for errors. Occasionally; however, errors may be detected in a published article. A correction is a statement indicating the correction of an error or omission; for Biomedical Letters, authors or readers may submit such a statement by sending an email to the journal's editorial office (along with the submission ID). A corrected article is not removed from the journal's website, but a correction notice is published and linked to the corrected article and made freely available to all readers. Biomedical Letters only publishes corrections of errors involving metadata and those of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall thrust of a published article; the addition of new data is not permitted in this circumstance.

As the journal is available online, no hard copy will be provided to the corresponding author on publication of his/her manuscript. The manuscript will be available freely from net where it can be downloaded from anywhere. However, if required, the colored prints will be available upon payment.

Archiving policy
The journal contents are continuously deposited in Internet Archive for Long-term preservation.

Repository policy
The authors are encouraged to post their pre-publication manuscript in institutional repositories or on their websites prior to and during the submission process and to post the Publisher's final formatted PDF version after publication without embargo. These practices benefit authors with productive exchanges as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.

Ethical guidelines for journal publication
Biomedical Letters is committed to ensure ethics in publication and quality of articles based on COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of the research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. The corresponding author should ensure that all authors significantly contributed to the research and there is a full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication. The authors must provide funding information and a conflict of interest statement.

Editors: Editors should take responsibility for the smooth peer review, production and publication process of submitted manuscripts under the journal's legal requirements and policies. Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively based on their academic merit. An editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like) have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper. Editors should always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. The revisers should point out the relevant published work which is not yet cited.

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