Nanomedicine: why it still taking long from "bench to bedside"?
Fawad Ur Rehman
International Joint Centre for Biomedical Innovations, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Jin Ming Avenue, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, China
The nanoscale materials biomedical applications have exponentially increased from last few decades. It has been estimated that globally around 1300 nanomaterials are produced every year. Their wide applications include automobiles, aerospace, energy, electro-mechanical engineering, textiles, environmental scavenger, food additives and biomedical industry applications. The produced materials are mostly from the bench of chemists, chemical or materials scientists. The nano-bio interface is more challenging due to two different disciplines marriage i.e. engineering and biology. For instance, the intended nanoscale materials biomedical applications especially nano therapeutics and nano drug delivery system, only initial in vitro cytotoxicity assays or in vivo simple murine models applications are performed. The in vitro studies focusing on cell cultures are simple and no complex interfering system is involved i.e. blood pressure, colloidal osmotic pressure, hormonal homeostasis, reticuloendothelial cells and immunity etc. Therefore, the in vitro studies can evaluate the nanoscale materials biocompatibility up to some extent but not completely. Similarly the murine models, guinea pigs or even advance primates cannot represent the human model due to genetic variations.