ISSN 2410-955X - An International Biannual Journal
Relationship of smoking with COVID-19 and its adverse effects
Ghulam Khalid Mahmood 1, Muhammad Wajid 1, Ahmad Waheed 1, Waseem Aslam 1, Tehmina Khan 1, Hussnain Akmal 1, Hina Naz 1, Asma Sardar 1, Kaynat Shahid 1, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar 2, Muhammad Saleem Khan 1*
1 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
2 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
There is a direct relationship between COVID-19 and smoking. This relationship has detrimental consequences for smoking and COVID-19 on body physiology. Smoking causes disc herniation, lungs diseases, heart illness, lipid profile changes, muscle protein synthesis declines, head, neck, and gastric cancers, cerebral inflammation, weight loss and obesity. The smoking habit of pregnant women leads to miscarriage, poor foetal growth, and low lipid and protein levels in breast milk. In males, it also reduces semen ejaculation and seminal vesicle volume. The treatment is based on quitting the smoking. Preventive measures such as a healthy diet and regular exercise can help to mitigate the negative consequences of smoking. In addition, smoking has been recognised as a major factor in COVID-19 transmission. Tobacco smokers are at increased risk of serious COVID-19 infection due to poor lung function, cross-infection, and vulnerable hygiene behaviors. People who have smoked in the past are thought to be more susceptible than non-smokers to have more severe COVID-19 illness symptoms. COVID-19 is more common among smokers than nonsmokers. Current smokers are five times more likely to have influenza infection than non-smokers. Smoking has been identified as one of the risk factors linked to infection and death.