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ISSN 2311-3219 - An International Triannual Journal
Thank you for choosing to submit your manuscript to Science Letters. These instructions will ensure your article to move through peer review, production and publication smoothly.

Editorial policy
The submitted articles/materials must not be under consideration for publication anywhere else and abide by the publication and experimentation ethics described below. All received articles are subjected to a double-blind peer-review process. Peer-review is defined as obtaining advice on individual manuscripts from reviewers expert in the field. The editorial board sends articles to at least two potential reviewers and the Editor-in-Chief approves articles on the advice of those reviewers. After the acceptance of an article, a copyright agreement / license to publish form is sent to the corresponding author(s). After receiving the signed copyright agreement / license to publish form, an uncorrected proof of manuscript is sent to the corresponding author(s) for final chekcing. The full article is published open access online immediately after receiving the corrected proof of manuscript from the corresponding author(s). Science Letters publishes three issues per year and their execution time is April, August and December, respectively, each year. Editorial board takes reasonable responsive measures (Article Withdrawal Policy) when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like) are presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published article. Submission should be made through online submission system of the journal (Submit Online).

Ethics of experimentation
It is assumed that the submitted work has been conducted in accordance with the biological welfare laws acceptable worldwide and/or laws of the country where the work was undertaken; however, the journal management has the right to reject any manuscript where there is enough reason to believe that necessary laws and procedures have not been followed. All manuscripts which report in vivo experiments or clinical trials on humans or animals must include a written statement in the Materials and Methods section, that such work was conducted with the formal approval of the local human subject (patient or relatives/guardians if the patient is dead) or with the formal permission of animal care committees, and that clinical trials have been registered as the legislation requires.
If required, Authors must confirm that all mandatory laboratory health and safety procedures have been complied within the course of conducting any experimental work reported in the manuscript; and that the manuscript contains all appropriate warnings and safety precautions concerning any specific and particular hazards that may be involved in carrying out experiments or procedures described in the manuscript or involved in instructions, materials, or formulae in the manuscript.
The gene sequences should be submitted in a public database (GenBank, EMBL, or DDBJ) and their accession number must be mentioned in the text.

Plagiarism Detection
Science Letters takes publication ethics very seriously and abides by the best practice guidance of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Science Letters verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. Turnitin checks submitted articles against millions of published articles, and billions of web content. Every article is screened on submission and any that is deemed to overlap more than trivially with other publications will be rejected automatically with no right of appeal.

Statement for Competing Interest / Conflict of Interest / Intellectual Property Right
To ensure the objectivity and transparency in research and principles of ethical and professional conduct, authors must certify that they have or have no affiliation with or involvement in any organization or entity with any non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, knowledge) and financial interest (such as educational grants; honoraria; employment, consultancies, or other equity interest; and patent-licensing, including patents and copyrights, whether pending, issued, licensed and/or receiving royalties) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. The source of funding and conflict of interest statement must be included in the manuscript at the end of the manuscript before references section. The names of funding organizations should be written in full, abbreviations should be avoided. See below examples of disclosures:
Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).
Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.
If no conflict exists, the authors should state that the authors have no conflict of interest.

Article Submission and Processing Charges
Science Letters do not require payment from authors or their institutions or funding agencies as an Article Submission and/or Processing Charges for publication of their work. All articles become available right after publication to everyone from everywhere without any cost or subscription.

Relevant Permissions, and Copyright and Access Policy
The author(s) must obtain permissions for and acknowledge the source of excerpts from other copyright works. All necessary approvals/consents from all authors, and institutional ethical and regulatory bodies should be obtained.
Science Letters provides online access to published articles free of charge and these articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 Internationals (CC BY-NC-4.0), which means that the authors have open access as including not only basic elements such as the right to read, download and print, but also the right to copy, redistribute, transform, search, link, crawl, mine, or use them for any other lawful non-commercial purpose.

Manuscript Types
Sciences Letters publishes original research articles, short communications, data analysis, review articles, case studies and letters to editor.

1. Original Research Articles
Regular research articles should be as concise as possible (there is no limit of article pages). The submitted articles should be divided into the following sections:
Abstract of approximately 200-300 words describing clearly, but briefly about background, methodology, results, and conclusion.
Keywords (3 - 6) should also be indicated at the end of abstract.
Introduction stating clearly the purpose of work done with some review of literature.
Materials and Methods
Discussion / Results and Discussion section can be combined if necessary.
Acknowledgments / Funding
Conflict of Interest
Tables and figures must be arranged at the end of the manuscript.

2. Short Communications
Short communications should be concise containing about 3 pages of the Journal, (9 pages of word document with double space, including illustrations, tables and references). An abstract of 150 - 200 words should be included. The short communication may or may not include any heading or sub-heading. If heading is not used then only abstract should be separated from the rest of write up. The total number of references should not exceed more than twenty.
3. Data Analysis
Data analysis should be as concise as possible (there is no limit to article pages). Data analysis may or may not include headings and sub-headings. If any heading is not used then only abstract should be separated from the rest of write up.
4. Reviews / Mini-reviews
Review and Mini-review articles are also welcomed. Authors should have a background of the work and are encouraged to consult the editor in advance before submission. References to the books should be avoided in writing the review articles. The article must include Abstract, Introduction and appropriate headings in the text and Conclusion. For review articles, there is no limit of article pages, but for Mini-reviews, text should not have more than 2500 words excluding tables and figures.
It is the responsibility of the authors to ensure that about 40 - 60% of the references should be within five years of relevant work for each form of publication and the submitted manuscripts comply with journal format.
5. Case studies
Case studies should be concise containing about 3-4 pages of the Journal, (9 pages of word document with double space, including illustrations, tables and references). An abstract of 100 - 150 words should be included. Case studies may or may not include any heading or sub-heading. If a heading is not used then only abstract should be separated from the rest of write up. The total number of references should not exceed more than twenty.
6. Letters to Editor
Letters to the Editor should focus on the aspect(s) of general concern to different science fields and should not exceed 4 double-spaced typed pages including 5-10 references. Examples of topics for such letters include solutions to long-standing problems, analysis of significant contradictions, responses to a hypothesis, or other letters to the editors published in Science Letters.

Title Page and Text Formatting
All submitted manuscripts should have a Title Page includeing a concise and informative title, the name(s) of the author(s) in the order of appearance in the manuscript, the affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s). The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author and additional author notes if any.
The manuscript written and submitted in Word (2003-2010) is acceptable. The lines should be numbered and use normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text. Automatic page numbering (bottom right) should be used to number the pages in manuscript. The field functions should be avoided and for indent, use tab stops or other commands, not the space bar. The equation editor or MathType should be used for equations.
The title, headings and subheading should be written in bold sentence case (not in UPPER CASE).

Symbols and Abbreviations
With respect to symbols in the manuscript, System International (SI) should be used. Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Statistical Analysis
Appropriate statistical treatment of the data is essential. When the statistical analysis is performed, the name of the statistical test used, number for each analysis, comparisons of interest, alpha level and the actual p-value for each test should be provided.

Acknowledgments of people involved, national or international grants and/or funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section (both in regular article and short communications) before the reference list.

Source of Funding and Conflict of Interest
The source of funding and conflict of interest statement must be included in the manuscript at the end of the manuscript before References section. The funding source can also be mentioned in the Acknowledgement section. For more details, please read section "Statement for Competing Interest / Conflict of Interest / Intellectual Property Right".

In the text, the references should be cited as numbers with brackets at the end of the sentence or after the first author's name before the full stop. For example; similar results were reported earlier [1]. or [1, 2]. or [1-3]. The results reported by Raza et al. [12] indicate that ...... The typescript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of the author's name is exactly the same as mentioned in the reference list. All the references cited in the text should be written at the end of manuscript as cited in the text, not alphabetically.
At the end, references should be written as follow:
Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2010; 163:51-9.
Reference to a book:
[2] Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 4th ed. New York: Longman; 2000.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
[3] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 2009, p. 281-304.
Reference for proceedings
[4] Lowe KF, Hamilton BA. Dairy pastures in the Australian tropics and subtropics. In: Murtagh GT, Jones RM, editors. Proceedings of the 3rd Australian conference on tropical pastures, Rockhampton, 1986, p. 68-79.
Note: If there are more than 6 authors then the first 6 should be listed followed by 'et al.'

Tables should be made by using the table function of MS office word, not spreadsheets. The Tables caption should begin with the label "Table 1" right above the Table having a brief description. Tables should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lowercase letters and included beneath the table body. Vertical lines should not be used.

The figure legends should begin with the label "Fig. 1" right below the figure having a brief description. Figure parts should be indicated with capital letters (A). Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order and borders around figures should not be used.

Supplementary Materials
This section includes the text of the Supplementary Materials, which can include figures, tables, material and methods part. Supplementary material can be provided in the same manuscript file at the end of the manuscript after tables and figures.

Potential Reviewers
While online submission, the authors are requested to provide 3 potential relevant reviewers with their complete details (designation, institute, postal address, telephone, fax and official e-mail address). After an initial review by the journal management, the manuscript may be sent to a few of the given reviewers; however, the publication largely depends upon the response of reviewers and the time taken by them in reviewing the manuscript.

English Editing Service
Clear and concise language enables both the journal editors and reviewers to concentrate on the scientific content of the manuscript. In order to facilitate a proper peer review process and ensure that submissions are judged exclusively on academic merit, Science Letters strongly encourages authors to prepare the language of their manuscripts with the utmost care.
If you are an author whose native language is not English or you have any concerns regarding the language quality of your manuscript, we recommend having your manuscript professionally edited by a qualified English-speaking researcher in your field prior to submission. THE SCIENCE PUBLISHERS has partnered with qualified English-speaking researchers as an option to provide this service at a 5% discount to all our authors.

Proofs and Reprints
Upon satisfactory revision and acceptance, the proofs will be sent to authors for correction through E-mail, if required. The authors are requested to return the manuscript with minor changes within a week time. As the journal is available online, no hard copy will be provided to the corresponding author on publication of his/her manuscript.

Science Letters aims to publish every article online in its final form. When authors receive the proofs of their articles, they have the opportunity to check for errors. Occasionally; however, errors may be detected in a published article. A correction is a statement indicating the correction of an error or omission; for Science Letters, authors or readers may submit such a statement by sending an email to the journal's editorial office (along with the submission ID). A corrected article is not removed from the journal's website, but a correction notice is published and linked to the corrected article and made freely available to all readers. Science Letters only publishes corrections of errors involving metadata and those of a scientific nature that do not alter the overall thrust of a published article; the addition of new data is not permitted in this circumstance.

Archiving policy
The journal contents are continuously deposited in Internet Archive for Long-term preservation.

Repository policy
The authors are encouraged to post their pre-publication manuscript in institutional repositories or on their websites prior to and during the submission process and to post the Publisher's final formatted PDF version after publication without embargo. These practices benefit authors with productive exchanges as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.

Ethical guidelines for journal publication
Science Letters is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles based on COPE Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of the research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process and provide retractions or corrections of mistakes. The corresponding author should ensure that all authors significantly contributed to the research and there is a full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication. The authors must provide funding information and a conflict of interest statement.

Editors: Editors should take responsibility for the smooth peer review, production and publication process of submitted manuscripts under the journal's legal requirements and policies. Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively based on their academic merit. An editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints (such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like) have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper. Editors should always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers. The revisers should point out the relevant published work which is not yet cited.

Author Guidelines
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