Recent Advances in Comprehending the Incidence and Etiology of the Post-Surgical Stroke After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Systematic Review
Hussain Amjad, Liu Zhiyong*, Bukhari Ashfiq, Wei He, Xin Xue, Lei Wang, Limbu Dipsundar, Zhenye Pu
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Southeast University Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Nanjing, China
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery has been adopted as an efficacious treatment for patients with coronary artery disease. To date, no comprehensive report has been published on the recent advances in terms of etiology and risk factors of stroke after CABG surgery. The current review has for the first time analyzed the most recent advancements and investigations done on post-surgical stroke following CABG surgery in addition to the comprehension of the incidence of post-surgical stroke and related it to the Chinese population. Furthermore, the review has also determined the etiological parameters and risk factors leading to post-surgical stroke. This comprehensive review suggests the incidence of post-surgical stroke within a few days of the surgery and varies considerably due to different mechanisms blocking the supply of blood to the brain and hampering the normal functioning. The Chinese population has seen an alleviation in the post-surgical stroke after CABG for the last decade due to technological advancements; however, the lack of knowledge regarding risk factors still needs to be addressed meticulously by cardiac surgeons in China and other regions of the world. Furthermore, different risk factors, e.g., an age >70 years, female sex, hypertension, kidney failure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, peripheral artery disease, 40% ejection fraction, previous history of any type of stroke, and calcification of aorta, etc. have been known for augmenting the chances of post-surgical stroke incidence.