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ISSN 2410-955X - An International Biannual Journal
Case report of multiple concomitant infections (HCV, HEV, Typhoid and Oral thrush) and their treatment challenges in a developing country
Muhammad Alamgir Khan 1, Rabia Nawaz 1,2*, Khadija Akhter 1, Ammara Ahad 1, Samyyia Abrar 1, Uqba Mehmood 1, Muhammad Shahid 2, Sabeen Sabri 3, Sana Sajjad 1, Marhaba Khurshid 1, Saad Ahmed 4

1 Department of Biological Sciences, The Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Division of Molecular Virology, Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
3 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Okara, Okara, Pakistan
4 Chaudhry Muhammad Akram Teaching and Research Hospital, Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan

It is important to diagnose multiple infections timely, to avoid potential treatment complications. We report a case here with multiple infections, admitted to the ICU of a private healthcare facility, for ventilatory support. On admission, he had reactive hepatitis E and hepatitis C, was suspected of oral thrush, acute and chronic typhoid associated with headache, fever for one month, nausea for the last three days, yellow colored urine for seven days, and difficulty breathing. He was treated for four days, and afterward, removed from hospital care without the consent of the doctor in-charge while his condition was not stable. Several essential diagnostic tests were recommended but were not provided for by the caretakers. Unfortunately, the telephonic follow up brought the news of his sad demise a day after his discharge from the hospital. Poor financial conditions, lack of public funding, lack of awareness amongst caretakers, as well as the absence of trust in the national healthcare system, pose serious challenges for healthcare providers and lead to many such sad instances quite routinely in developing countries.


A R T I C L E  I N F O

April 05, 2022
May 13, 2022
June 16, 2022

*Corresponding Author
Rabia Nawaz

Bending constant
Multiple infections

2022 | Volume 8 | Issue 2