Infectious Bronchitis: A Moving Target for Commercial Poultry Industry
Muhammad Faheem Akhtar 1*, Ejaz Ahmad 2, Ilyas Ali 3, Muhammad Shafiq 4
1 Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medical Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, 60800, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
3 College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
4 Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, 515041, Shantou, Guangdong, China
The poultry industry is one of the most efficient and flourishing sectors of agriculture that not only provides cheaper protein (eggs, meat) but also contributes heavily to the country's economy. There are several challenges faced by the poultry industry worldwide. Among all these challenges, disease management has been a major problem. Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) are RNA-based viruses having high recombination and mutation rates. IBVs are gamma coronaviruses affecting the upper respiratory tract of chickens. Due to the high rate of mutation and recombination, IBVs are very difficult to properly diagnose and control. Some serotype IBVs are extremely resistant, causing high economic losses in the form of excessive use of antibiotics after the eruption of secondary pathogens and mortality, but some serotype IBVs are limited to morbidity losses only. There are some control methods for IBVs and practicing effective vaccination and biosecurity measures is highly recommended. Exposure of IBVs to chicken flock postulates gateway to secondary pathogens, which also pass on to coming generations. This review paper provides updated research tools and methods to diagnose and control IBVs.